A document which describes and advertises a new share issue or flotation (IPO in US) to potential investors, the contents of which are regulated by UK company law, the Financial Services Authority (FSA) and the London Stock Exchange. The prospectus should include details such as a description of the company’s business, financial statements, biographies of executives and directors, detailed information about their remuneration, any current litigation, a list of assets and other information deemed relevant for consideration by a prospective investor.
An Initial Public Offering is the US equivalent of flotation, and is the first sale of equity in a private company in the form of shares (know as stocks in the US) to the public in order to raise capital to finance growth.
Flotation involves a company selling a percentage of itself in the form of shares on a regulated exchange, such as the London Stock Exchange. Prior to flotation, the company is independently audited and valued and shares offered for sale at a price determined by the company’s value. After flotation, the shares are traded on the exchange for what the market deems they are worth. Shares are bought by other financial institutions and private investors.
The Financial Services Authority is an independent non-governmental body, given a wide range of rule-making, investigatory and enforcement powers in order to meet its four statutory objectives: market confidence (maintaining confidence in the UK financial system), financial stability, consumer protection and the reduction of financial crime. The FSA receives no government funding and is funded entirely by the firms it regulates, but is accountable to the Treasury and, ultimately, parliament.