Glossary: Endowment policy
A contract written by a life assurance company to pay a fixed sum (“the basic sum assured”) to the assured person on a fixed date in the future or to their estate should the person die prematurely. The policies normally run for five, 10, 15, 20 and 25 years. Monthly premiums are calculated on the age of the life insured, the basic sum assured required at maturity and the length of the policy, so each policy is unique. The policies can be with-profits or unit-linked (see separate entries). A common investment product during the 1980s, endowment policies were sold alongside interest-only mortgages and designed to provide enough money to repay the capital borrowed at the end of the mortgage term. However, mis-selling scandals and poor investment performance discredited endowments as a mortgage repayment method.
The practice of a dishonest salesperson misrepresenting or misleading an investor about the characteristics of a product or service. For example, selling a person with no dependants a whole-of-life policy. There have been notable mis-selling scandals in the past, including endowment policies tied to mortgages, employees persuaded to leave final salary pensions in favour of money purchase pensions (which paid large commissions to salespeople) and payment protection insurance. There is no legal definition of mis-selling; rather the Financial Services Authority (FSA) issues clarifying guidelines and hopes companies comply with them.
Everything you own: all your assets (property, cars, investments, savings, insurance payouts, artwork, furniture etc) minus any liabilities (debts, current bills, payments still owed on assets like cars and houses, credit card balances and other outstanding loans). When you’re alive this is called your wealth; when you’re dead, it becomes your estate.
Generally thought of as being interchangeable with insurance but isn’t. Assurance is cover for events that WILL happen but at an unspecified point in the future (such as retirement and death) and insurance covers events that MAY happen (such as fire, theft and accidents). Therefore you buy life assurance (you will die, but don’t know when) and car insurance (you may have an accident). Assurance policies are for a fixed term, with a fixed payout, and unlike life insurance have an investment aspect: as a life assurance policy increases in value, the bonuses attached to it build up. If you die during the fixed term, the policy pays out the sum assured. However, if you survive to the end of the policy, you then get the annual bonuses plus a terminal bonus.